1. What we perceive by our (five) senses exists
Whatever we can perceive with our senses definitely exists. This is a clear, obvious and undisputable fact.
2. Certainty is attainable by decisive (factual) report, in the same way it can be achieved by the senses
In order to acknowledge or believe in the existence of a matter, one does not necessarily need to perceive it with their (five) senses.
For example, we know the Bermuda Triangle exists, yet how many of us have actually seen it with our own eyes?
Similarly, we know that meteorites exist (in space), but have we ever seen them ourselves? No, is the most likely answer to both these questions, but we know they exist because we have decisive report (information).
Therefore, one does not need to see God in order to believe in Him. Decisive report or information is sufficient.
3. We must not reject the existence of a matter if we are unable to perceive it with our senses
This is a very important point to bear in mind: One should not deny the existence of a matter just because they are unable to perceive it with their senses.
Example: If a person is locked in a cell (with a window) their view would be greatly restricted. Nevertheless, the prisoner cannot deny the existence of those matters or objects which he/she is unable to see from their cell.
Example: We know bacteria exist even though we cannot see them with our naked eyes.
4. The Human imagination (or mind) cannot perceive anything beyond reality
It is not possible for us as human beings to imagine Paradise or Hell, or even life after death, because they are beyond our reality (or realm).
The only way we have come to learn about such notions is through revelation and divine sources. If God never told us about them it would be impossible for us to invent the concept of Paradise (Heaven) and Hell.
Example: If you try to imagine a car, a certain image would come to your mind, based on your previous experiences with cars. However, if you had never seen or heard of one before, it would be impossible for you to imagine one.
Hence, the concept of Heaven, Hell and the Afterlife must have come from a non-human being – God.
5. Human comprehension is restricted by time and place
As human beings, we can only comprehend the existence of a matter if it is restricted by time and place.
Example: Britain enters into a war with Russia. It is not in the UK, nor is it in Russia. It is not on land, nor on water, and neither is it in the sky. Moreover, the war did not happen last year, or any other year. This is impossible for one to comprehend because the event (or war) is not restricted by time of place.
Example: If a person you had just recently met told you they came from a country that was not in Asia, Europe, Africa, Australia or any other continent, it would be impossible for you to understand or comprehend where the person was from.
Therefore, it is the human imagination or faculty of mind that is limited and restricted. The fact that we are unable to see or hear God does not mean He cannot be seen or heard.
Furthermore, because our intellectual capacity is limited, it is not possible for us to understand (or rationalise) the Attributes of God. The only reliable information we have about God is what He Himself has informed us of (in divine scriptures).
6. Believing in God is part of human nature
Before man was born, God created the whole of mankind and made us testify and acknowledge that He is indeed our Creator. This is why believing in God is part of our natural disposition (fitrah). Allah (SWT) says in the Qur’aan:
“And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their loins, their seed (Adam’s offspring) and made them testify as to themselves (saying): “Am I not your Lord?” They said: “Yes! We testify,” lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection: ‘Verily, we have been unaware of this.’” (EMQ al-A’raaf, 7:172)
7. Seeing the existence of other life is a direct proof of the existence of God
The fact that we can see other living organisms and beings around us is proof of the existence of God. The rational human being would conclude that they were created and could not have created themselves.
8. Man by his nature is limited, weak and needy
Every creation is limited, weak and needy. We too have these traits, and therefore we are creations of a Creator (God).
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